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Ceramic Manufacture



The processing of Ceramic





Clay, is taken from the quarry then transported to our company and placed in a special yard where it will undergo a seasoning phase, for about a year during which organic substances still present can be converted as a result of the oxygenation process facilitated by a sequence of weather conditions. After the seasoning is picked up and taken to a large melter or mixers where it will dissolve with water, which has the task to wash the clay and dissolve the salts.


After the dissolving process, the clay mixture is put through a special vibrating sieve, which is designed to stop impurities present in the clay and the grainy particles. After the sieving process it is conveyed into a containment pit where a slow shaker keeps the clay constantly floating to avoid falling at the bottom. From the holding tank, through a diaphragm pump is conducted and compressed in a filter press consisting of a set of plates covered with cloth filters that allow the separation of water from clay and the hardening of the latter. After 6 / 8 hours, the clay is taken out of the disks and brought to the mixing and degassing phase, through special machines called kneading-gassed in which the clay is homogenized in absence of air.







From the exit through of the degassed mixers, the clay is carried to various processes that can be performed either manually or with the help of machines for shaping by molding.


Manual Shaping:manual turning is performed on the lathe and is used for the shaping of ceramic or round objects, the ceramic maker in fact, with the only help of his/her hands, can perform the desired  shape of the clay.

Shaping by pressing:For the creation of a large number of objects that must be quickly reproduce, we adopt the technique of injection molding, with the use of hydraulic presses which is mounted on a mould.

Shaping by casting:In this case we adopt white kaolinite clay, which is dissolved in water along with a fluidizing such as sodium silicate, the slurry thus obtained is poured into molds where it is parked for about an hour then the mold is emptied and opened in order to remove and refine the object formed around the inner walls of the mold.



The shaped objects requires a drying time for the evaporation of residual water contained in the clay. Questo processo può avviene naturalmente esponendo gli oggetti all'aria, o forzato mediante l'uso degli essicatori. This process can naturally occur by exposing objects to the air, or using articial dryers.







Once the objects are dried then they are placed in an oven that can be  powered by electricity or gas. The first firing lasts 12 hours, will bring the objects at about 1000 degrees centigrade, followed by the gradual cooling, which occurs naturally for heat dissipation, or compulsorily about 24/48 hours, depending on the size of the objects and the mass that was put to firing.







After the first firing,the objects will udergo to the glazing process which is done manually by dipping the object in watery enamel solution. The enamel is made ​​from a composition of glass, opacifiers and other fluxes finely grounded into a mill, depending on the proportion of composition given by the temperature in which it will be submitted. The enamel may also be done with airbrush in a special booth. It is used to coat the surface of the object on which it will then be applied the decoration.





Ceramic decoration Craft is made by hand by skilled decorators, capable to express on the surface of the glaze decorations applied with appropriate brush to coat the object with attractive Décor . To do this, we use the right amount of ceramic colours from mineral oxides or mixed metal with fluxes compared to the temperature of the second firing. The most or the least lower harmonization between the applied décor, the use of the colour and shape of the object will be the elements of quality assessment of the artifacts.








After the decoration, the object is put back in the oven to undergo a second firing that in 8 / 10 hours will bring the objects at a temperature of 920/950 degrees centigrade with an additional cooling time of about 18/24 hours. As a result of high quality product, known as majolica, which has made Caltagirone ​​a major centre of production of ceramic.








Tiles Processing and decoration


CEAR Srl is synonymous with technical know-how acquired within  the company throughout all the product range.

Even the tiles and special pieces such as torelli, pencils, etc.., The process starts with the production of clays within the company and through a special die-cutting machine which produces various sizes 10x10 - 15x15 - 20x20 and by extrusion  there is a mixer degassing that produced several special pieces. For this purpose is used pure clay to produce solid tiles without the use of additives such as pozzolanica sand as these types of products have shown limits, especially in mechanical strength, abrasion due to trampling, and the lasting of the enamel surface.

A first round of firing at 990 ° C will bring the tiles to the highest degree of vitrification of the mixture.
After the first firing, the tiles are glazed with special glaze then finally decorated.

This is the most important phase and characterized by the following process:
the decor to achieve, primarily comes from a thorough search of styles related to our tradition and basically, from the Arabic  culture,  not only in Sicily but also in Spain and Portugal, indeed  Arabs have left us an undisputed artistic heritage which is still visible now.







For the decoration of tiles, It is not used decals at all, or the stencil technique, ie application templates reproducing variuos colours.

In order to provide maximum value for the use of the décor, our tiles are made entirely by hand, they are decorated by  a traditional technique called "dusting" that involves drawing the design on a sheet of tracing paper, making small holes that reproduce the path of the décor in the same way as it is done in embroidery. Then, using a buffer consisting of coal dust, the pattern is transferred onto the tile, and skilled decorators following the path will proceed to achieve the decor entirely by hand, through the various colours and contours. In this way, we guarantee the authenticity of a hand-made decoration, but also the continuity and regularity of the decor in the way is carried out, in the different tiles which like a mosaic compose beautiful drawings.




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CEAR Ceramiche Azzaro & Romano S.r.l - Zona Industriale Strada A - 95041 Caltagirone (CT)

Phone/Fax +39 (0)933 337001 - Mobile +39 328 9198898

e-mail: info@ceramichecear.it - VAT 03978700874



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